What is a Standards Organization?
- Standards organizations help to ensure agencies not only operate in accordance to the law, but also function at a high, best practice level.
- Within each standard, focus areas provide further information around teaching knowledge, practical and professional engagement
- While these standards are all intended to guide the user to make the right choice of product, there are some important differences between them.
- Industry standards are required to ensure and guide the maintenance, testing and installation of products and technologies.
- Following the standards helps to provide and support mission critical applications as well as create operational efficiencies.
- Standards provide best practices to support and extend the life of products and solutions.
National Electrical Manufacturers' Association
- NEMA or “TYPE” is recognized within North America.
- There is no lab-testing required for NEMA. Compliance and testing are the responsibility of the enclosure manufacturer.
- NEMA does not provide “certification labels” for enclosures.
Common NEMA Types:
- NEMA 12 (dust)
- NEMA 4 (water tight)
- NEMA 4X (water & corrosion protection)
NOTE: Open style networks racks cannot have a NEMA rating
- NEMA Standards Publication No. 250 enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Maximum)
- NEMA Standards Publication No. ICS6 enclosures for Industrial Controls and Systems
|Type 1||Type 12/13||Type 4|
Service & Utility Box
|Industrial Oil & Dust Tight
Electrical Hydraulic or Pneumatic Controls
Junction/Terminal Wiring Enclosures
Electrical Hydraulic or Pneumatic Controls
Junction/Terminal Wiring Enclosures
|Hammond Rack Mounting
(NEMA Standard 250)
|Enclosures constructed for indoor use to provide a degree of protection to personnel against incidental contact with the enclosed equipment to provide a degree of protection against falling dirt.||Enclosures constructed (without knockouts) for indoor use to provide a degree of protection to personnel against incidental contact with the enclosed equipment; to provide a degree of protection against falling dirt; against circulating dust, lint and fiber flyings; and against dripping and light splashing of liquids.||Enclosures constructed for either indoor or outdoor use to provide a degree of protection to personnel against incidental contact with the enclosed equipment: to provide a degree of protection against falling dirt, rain, sleet, snow, windblown dust, splashing water, hose directed water, and hose-directed water; and that will be undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure.|
(UL50 and UL508A)
|Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amount of falling dirt.||Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against circulating dust, falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.||Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust, and rain, splashing water, hose-directed water;and damage from external ice formation.|
(Standard C22.2, Nos. 14, 40 and 94)
|General purpose enclosure in ordinary locations.||An enclosure for indoor use, constructed so as to provide a degree of protection against circulating and settling dust and lint, fibre flyings; dripping and light splashing of non-corrosive liquids; not provided with knockouts.||An enclosure for either indoor or outdoor use, constructed so as to provide a degree of protection against rain, snow, windblown dust, splashing and hose-directed water; undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure.|
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
- Similar to NEMA, IP (Ingress Protection) is a European standard from IEC that is also used throughout North America.
- There is no lab-testing required for IEC. Compliance and testing are the responsibility of the enclosure manufacturer.
- The IP standard is used to define the levels of sealing effectiveness of electrical enclosures against intrusion from foreign bodies such as tools, dirt and moisture.
- IEC 60529 Classification of Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures
NEMA vs IEC
|Provides a Degree of Protection Against:||Type 1||Type 3R||Type 12||Type 13||Type 4||Type 4X||Type 6||Type 6P|
|Contact with Enclosed Equipment||●||●||●||●||●||●||●||●|
|Falling & Lightly Splashing Water||●||●||●||●||●||●||●|
|Oil & Coolant||●|
|Sleet & Ice||●||●||●||●||●|
|Splashing Water & Hose-Down||●||●||●||●|
|Short Term Submersion||●||●|
|NEMA to IEC Cross Reference*||IP20||IP22||IP54||IP54||IP66||IP66||IP67||IP68|
Underwriters' Laboratories Inc.
UL Requires that enclosures be tested in an approved lab in order to prove their performance.
- UL 50 Cabinets and Boxes
- UL 2416 Data/Comm Equipment Cabinets
Requires that enclosures be tested in an approved lab in order to prove their performance.
Note: CSA is not applicable to network rack/cabinets.
- CSA Standard C22.2, No 0.4 Bonding and Grounding of Electrical Equipment
- CSA Standard C22.2, No. 14 Industrial Control Equipment for Use in Ordinary
- CSA Standard C22.2, No. 94-M91 Special Purpose Enclosures
International Building Code (IBC)
California Building Code (CBC)
National Building Code of Canada (NBC)
- Requires that rack or cabinet be tested by a Structural Engineer to prove the performance.
- Requires analytical calculations.
- Does not involve a physical test.
Erricsson - Telcordia (Previously Bellcore)
- NEBS GR-63-CORE Seismic
- Requires that rack or cabinet be physically tested in a lab for vibrations and physical movement (shaker table), simulating an earthquake to prove performance.
Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC)
- The council was founded in 2007 by several global credit card companies.
- The standard helps to ensure the security of credit card transactions in the payment industry.
- PCI compliance may be required where credit card processing is facilitated.
Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
- EIA/ECA-310 revision E, is a specification for what is often called the “standard rack”. This specification standardizes several important features of 19″ racks, such as the rack unit (RU or U), vertical hole spacing, horizontal hole spacing, rack opening and front panel width.
- The specification also sets tolerances on each of these dimensions.
Conformitè Europëenne (CE)
- The CE marking represents a manufacturer’s declaration that products comply with the EU’s New Approach Directives.
- These directives not only apply to products within the EU but also for products that are manufactured in or designed to be sold in the European Economic Area (EEA).
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
- The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standards and conformity assessment system. Founded in 1918, the Institute works in close collaboration with stakeholders from industry and government to identify and develop standards- and conformance-based solutions to national and global priorities.
Restriction of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)
RoHS was implemented in 2003 to prevent the release of harmful substances during the use, collection, treatment and disposal of electronic waste. These substances can and are known to cause major environmental and health problems.
To comply with RoHS a manufacturer must restrict the use of using the following hazardous substances in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components:
- Hexavalent chromium
- Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB)
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)
- Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)
- Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP)
- Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)
- Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP)
North American Standards
In North America, NEMA, UL and CSA are the most commonly recognized Standards organizations.
They are almost identical in their rating and testing of enclosures.
UL and CSA
- Provide “certification labels” to be permanently attached inside the enclosures.
- Require that enclosures be tested in an approved lab in order to prove their performance.
- Inspect manufacturers to ensure they use approved materials and build to tested product designs.
- Do not provide “certification labels” for enclosures
- Do not provide testing services or require enclosures to be tested.
- Leave compliance and testing to the discretion of the manufacturer.
In Europe, IEC ratings are the most commonly recognized Standards for enclosures.
- IEC ratings are similar to NEMA, but the pass or fail requirements are different. (see NEMA to IEC Cross Reference Chart on page 7).
- IEC does not include ratings for enclosures in conditions of corrosion, rust or oil.
- IEC does not provide testing, so testing and compliance is left up to the manufacturer. In Europe, TUV and VDE are two popular testing agencies that manufacturers use.
- CE is a European Union (EU) symbol, which indicates that the product complies with the EU directives or Standards for that product.
CE does not apply to empty enclosures because enclosures are components of a final assembly. Testing and compliance to EU directives is the responsibility of the final equipment manufacturer.
UL and CSA have markings available that indicate approvals meet Standards of their “non-home” country.
- The cULus mark is a standard recognized within both Canada and the United States.
- The cCSAus mark indicates the product has been tested to meet USA Standards by CSA.